OBOR

Er-Rafia on China’s OBOR and the Global Balance of Power

Fatima-Zohra Er-Rafia is a lecturer at HEC Montréal and Polytechnique Montréal, a consultant, and an independent researcher. She holds a Ph.D. in Business Administration with a focus on China and Japan. Dr. Er-Rafia specializes in cross-cultural management, international affairs, strategy and organizational behavior. Her focus is on Weberian sociology, politics, economics, and history, and she…

The Next Generation of Mujahideen

New York City–After the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, voices began to rise up within the Islamic world, calling for young men to travel to Afghanistan to defend their Muslim brothers and sisters. Many heeded the call, and it is estimated that anywhere from 20,000 to 35,000 foreign fighters – known as “Arab Afghans” – traveled to Afghanistan to fight the Red Army. After the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan in 1988, many of these foreign mujahideen remained active, with some remaining in Afghanistan, and others returning to their home countries as folk heroes.